AOS Accounting, Organizations and Society Journal


Also, the amount of a business’ total assets less total liabilities. Also, the third section of a BALANCE SHEET, the other two being assets and liabilities. Change in  EQUITY of a business enterprise during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from sources not shown in the income statement.

Internal users may include the people that plan, organize, and run the organization. The management team needs accounting in making important decisions. Business decisions may range from deciding to pursue geographical expansion to improving operational efficiency. Accounting is the recording of financial transactions along with storing, sorting, retrieving, summarizing, and presenting the results in various reports and analyses. Accounting is also a field of study and profession dedicated to carrying out those tasks. In recent years, there has been a growing demand on the part of stakeholders for information concerning the social impacts of corporate decision making.

Board of Directors

Financial statements are reports that summarize how your business is doing financially. Accountants sometimes make future projections with respect to revenues, expenses, and debts. The concept of “present value” (PV) describes calculated adjustments that express those future funds in present-day dollars. Choose an online master’s program designed to fit your current career while you reach your professional accounting goals.

  • There are several flexible paths to the accounting career for you.
  • Replacing an old DEBT with a new one, often in order to lower the INTEREST costs of the issuer.
  • Also, Corporations and LLCs are required to have a separate line of credit outside their personal accounts.
  • It’s important to establish effective bookkeeping and accounting practices in order to manage the financial health of your company.
  • Capital refers to the money you have to invest or spend on growing your business.

Therefore, most companies will have annual audits for one reason or another. Luca Pacioli is considered “The Father of Accounting and Bookkeeping” due to his contributions to the development of accounting as a profession. An Italian mathematician and friend of Leonardo da Vinci, Pacioli published a book on the double-entry system of bookkeeping in 1494.

Debits and Credits

Accounting standards improve the reliability of financial statements. The financial statements include the income statement, the balance sheet, the cash flow statement, and the statement of retained earnings. The standardized reporting allows all stakeholders and shareholders to assess the performance of a business. Financial statements need to be transparent, reliable, and accurate.


Assets describe an individual or company’s holdings of financial value. Income statements are one of three standard financial statements issued by businesses. For example, a company that hired an external consultant would recognize the cost of that consultation in an accrual. That cost would be recognized regardless of whether or not the consultant had invoiced the company for their services. Others include accrued costs (costs incurred but not resolved during a particular accounting period) and accrued expenses (expenses or liabilities incurred but not resolved during a particular accounting period). An accounting period defines the length of time covered by a financial statement or operation.


Period of 12 consecutive months chosen by an entity as its The Importance of Accurate Bookkeeping for Law Firms: A Comprehensive Guide period which may or may not be a calendar year. Fixed Asset – Any tangible ASSET with a life of more than one year used in an entity’s operations. An AUDITOR that has a reasonable understanding of audit activities and has studied the company’s industry as well as the accounting and auditing issues relevant to the industry. The difference in perception between the public and the CPA as a result of accounting and audit service. All individuals, TRUSTS, and estates qualify for an exemption unless they are claimed as a dependent on another individual’s tax return. Tax on the value of a DECENDENT’S taxable estate, typically defined as the decedent’s ASSETS less LIABILITIES and certain expenses which may include funeral and administrative expenses.


If you don’t feel like these skills are your strongest areas and you run a business, you may want to seek out help to manage your accounting. While math skills are helpful, data and systems analysis are keys to success in this role. This means that curiosity and deductive reasoning skills are also useful. There are many other technical and soft skills that this role uses on a daily basis to make sure a business is financially healthy.

Public Oversight Board (POB)

General name for money, notes, BONDS, goods or services which represent amounts owed. Method of ACCELERATED DEPRECIATION, approved by the INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS), permitting twice the rate of annual DEPRECIATION as the STRAIGHT-LINE DEPRECIATION method. Last day the AUDITORS perform fieldwork and the last day of responsibility relating to significant events subsequent to the financial statement date. Used as an indicator of a COMPANY’s liquidity and ability to pay short-term debts.


They are taxed on all of their INCOME worldwide in the same manner a citizen of the United States is. EXPENDITURES for making good or whole the portions of property that have deteriorated through use or have been destroyed through accident. RATE OF RETURN resulting from the reinvestment of the INTEREST from a BOND or other fixed-income SECURITY. Process by which an insurance company obtains insurance on its insurance claims with other insurers in order to spread the risk. Agency responsible for keeping track of the owners of bonds and the issuance of stock. Replacing an old DEBT with a new one, often in order to lower the INTEREST costs of the issuer.

See the world through the lens of economics and gain the knowledge and skills to craft successful business strategy. Participants are expected to fully complete all coursework in a thoughtful and timely manner. This will mean meeting each week’s course module deadlines and fully answering questions posed therein, including satisfactory performance on the quizzes at the end of each module (earning an average score of 50% or greater). This helps ensure your cohort proceeds through the course at a similar pace and can take full advantage of social learning opportunities.

  • Accounting is a highly specialised subject, but is about much more than just numbers.
  • ASSET account on a balance sheet representing paper currency and coins, negotiable money orders and checks, bank balances, and certain short-term government securities.
  • These programs also send your customers’ receipts, reconcile your transactions, and handle returns if necessary.
  • Accounts receivable, securities, and money market instruments are all common examples of liquid assets.
  • Earnings available to COMMON STOCK divided by the number of common shares OUTSTANDING.